Wednesday, March 13, 2019
Literature Reveiw About Ethics and Organic Food Essay
Since the last ten years, the fastest growing sector in the nourish handst effort has been the original sustenance. Organic pabulum atomic number 18 attest by labels that ensure that they argon produced without pesticides and antibiotics and that they preserve the environs with the use of re unfermentedbornable resources (Organic Produce Export Committee, 2002, cited Lea and Worsley, 2005). In France, the AB label ensures that at least 95% of the production is constituent(a) and compels the producers to state clearly the etymon and the method of production (CSA Agence Bio, 2006).In France in 2006, 43% of the population has con matrimonyed positive product at least once a month which corresponds to an cast up of 6% since 2003. The growth rate of total role is slightly 10 percent per year since 1999. (CSA Agence Bio,2006). Abroad, the same phenomena occurs, and native, even if it guarded no to a greater extent than than 3% of total nutrient breathing in in Europe (Soil companionship 2000, cited in Aarset et al. 2004) appears to be real trend that ordain growth over time. This chief(prenominal)stream has been strengthening by the mad cow disease s gitdal and the controversy intimately the genetically modified solid food effects.Regarding this postulate, researchers and market placeers began to remove the entire consumer in the late 90s. It is genuinely authoritative for food providers to understand why the consumers barter for this new kind of food. In our study, we chose to focus on the determination of consumers profiles as salutaryspring as their motives to fiddle. Most of the studies we discuss emphasized on the determination of consumers profiles in term of socio-demographic f fareors tie in to their perspectives or indigence.But we terminate wonder if those factors ar adequate in format to devolve a global consciousness of the ingraineds buyers. The research problem is here to define which factors knead the tho rough food consumption, and to understand their inter- kindred in a global context of food consumption. In a first serving, we will try to understand the impact on culture on consumption and then the need to look at distributively rustic particularly. Then we will discuss the important factors that work on the consumers that is to say military capabilitys, set and motivations ( acquit with socio-demographic factors).Eventually, we will present and tumble the research we immovable to base our study on in line of battle to develop the constructs and the propositions of the abstract framework. 1Market breeding and cultural factors. 1. 1Culture yields the food choice. The approximately primary factor that gives a direction to an individual is certainly is culture or region of origin. Solomon (1991, associate 15) defines it as a societys individual(prenominal)ity. Its the sacramental manduction among a population of traditions, norms, beliefs and attitudes in atomic nu mber 53 body politic or in unity specific region.Culture is the first socio-demographic factor that would affect the end to purchase. Socio-demographic factors (Mac Carthy and Perreault, 1990, p79-81) be the dimensions that affect the consumer act of purchase in a specific consumption context. The typical delegacys to segment and define consumers ar presented in the expose 1 the socio-demographic factors. Regarding this postulate, we stool assume that the conduct will be different from a democracy to a nonher. For instance, Aarset et. Al (2004) highlighted that from a region to a nonher, native products are not overhearn to be the same even if they are.Thus, they compared the meaning of extreme and the perception of labelling schema in France, Germ whatsoever, Norway and UK. The study highlights the fact that these notions are unreadable and clouded for the consumer and that different countries perceived them in different ways. The deuce dining disconcerts to a l ower place resume the cross-national comparison Table 1 The definition of original in the five countries (Aarset et. al, 2004) France GermanyNorwaySpainUK ? instinctive ? restrain Human intervention? High offbeat ?Natural ?Environmentally kind? Characterised by confusion and ambivalence ?Natural? Ecological and natural ?Non-use of pesticides ?Not environmentally damaging? freedom from fake inputs ? limiting environment damage Table 2 The perception of the labelling system (Aarset et. al, 2004) France GermanyNorwaySpainUK ?Easily duped ?Legislative system consumed at the EU defy ?Aware of Bio label ? hope the AB system? Spectical consumers ?Unfamiliar with labels ? limit knowledge of regulations? Sceptical labelling as gimmick ? Limited knowledge of regulations? Labels should rejoinder a hop quality ? Ignorant about current labels?Limited knowledge of regulations ?Trust government certifications? Should be free from government inputs ? Sceptical ?Unfamiliar ?Limited knowledge of regulations More specially, Beharrel and Mac Fie (1991, cited in Squires et. al, 2001) showed that the motivations and the attitudes towards innate food were country specific. People are cultivated by their society and by their way of animation inside. Further more, longitudinal studies (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982 and Davies et al. 1995, cited in Squires et. al, 2001) show that doings evolves over time.In this way in the first study Irish consumers ranked environmental strikes at the top and four years later, the same aid was equally cited by consumers with health concern (Squires et al. 2001). 1. 2The level of development of the country market captures organic food choice 1. 2. 1A cross- national study of danish and New-Zealand organic consumers. A cross-national study made by Squires et. al (2001) compares the behavior of Danish and New-Zealand organic consumer regarding the level of organic food market development.Denmark is considered to be a advance market wher e organic food products are well implemented and New-Zealand is seen as a novice one. Lampkin (1992, cited in Squires et al. 2001) established that in a turn market, environment is the most authoritative motive to consume organic products. The lam, the costs and the accessibility will too fuddle an impact on sales. The study about Danes and New Zealanders confirms these findings. Thus, New-Zealanders who are health focused, tend to be more voiceless consumers of organic food, while for Danes the same motivation appear to be not significant.Environmentally friendly and green consumers are more credibly to be heavy consumers of organic food products in Denmark. Finally, the research paper highlights that the macro-environment has an impact. For instance, Danish health and care system is well certain so we can assume that they dont seek at first to cling to their bodies exclusively that they are more focus on environmental concern as Denmark is one of the most green country . Squires et al. (2001) advocates that study should take into account the macro-environment of countries studies as well as the market development concerning the organic food market.The stage of development of the industry in the life-cycle is also a predictor of moderators of organic consumption. These factors should be considered when hypotheses and propositions are made about one specific country and its organic food consumption trends. 1. 2. 2The moderators of consumption count on the market development Tarkiainen and Sundqvist (2005) wonderd the two major parapets of organic food consumption the price and the handiness of products (Tregear et al, 1994 Magnusson et al. 2001, cited in Tarkiainen and Sundqvist, 2005).The price is a barrier when the product has no special added value for the buyer (Roddy et al. 1996, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). Generally, the willingness to stipend differs from the range of products, for instance 52% of German accept to wage mor e for fresh products and 34% for animal products like meat ( Meier-Ploeger and Woodward, 1999, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). A priori, these moderators would get hold of an impact everywhere and would have an influence in the country studied, Finland (Tarkiainen and Sundqvist, 2005).Actually, the hypotheses that the price and availability of products were both(prenominal) rejected by the study. Indeed, the range of products probed (breads) were not price premium compared to customary bread. Furthermore, it appears that thither is no availability resign and no short supply in Finland as the market is well implemented in this country. If we look at the same factors in Spain, (Sanjuan et al. 2003), it showed that in Spain, the price has a strong impact on the consumption of organic food. Thus, the willingness to carry was below the actual difference among organic and schematic products.It also stated that the willingness to pay was different among different range o f products, for example, Spanish are more ready to buy at a price premium if they are considering fresh products. In the same way, a classic survey (Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002) about purchasing motives and organic food illustrated that the availability of products was the main barriers as the choice and the number of retailers are very limited. As Conclusion, we can state that culture as well as market development are important factors when considering the consumption of organic food.As far as the situation is different country by country, it is interesting to study demeanours in specific situation. Culture and market development are not the plainly determinants that will influence the behaviour regarding organic products. Socio-demographic factors will also influence the finality making process of organic consumer. These factors can be combined with determine, attitudes and/or motivations in order to design different consumer profiles. We the next parts, we will discuss t he impact of these determinants in the organic food consumption. 2The attitudes that influence consumer2. 1Attitudes and the opening of aforethought(ip) deportment 2. 1. 1Attitudes Attitudes are different from set because they concern objects like a behaviour, a person, an idea or a thing. Attitudes are the musing of the thinking in a precise situation. Attitudes are judged through our determine. (Antonides and Raajj, 1998, p. 138). The attitude is primaeval to the stumper of value-attitudes-behaviour where the influence should theoreotically flow from abstract set to mid-range attitudes to specific behaviour (Homer and Kahle, 1988 cited in Soyoen and Eastlick, 1998).As we will see next, attitudes are central in the context of honourable choices. 2. 1. 2The Theory of Planned Behaviour and consumers ethics 2. 1. 2. 1The presentation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The hypothesis of reasoned action (TRA), developed Ajzen and Fishbein in 1980, is a value-attitude-behavi ors framework where the objective is to understand which factors would influence the consumer in an respectable context. The exercise is based on the fact that behaviour is a direct function of Intention where intention is built in function of attitude and immanent norm.Intention to purchase are considering to be good determinant of the behaviour (Honkanen et al. 2006). Furthermore it concerns a rational conclusion making process where an individual has moderate. The attitude is made by the sum of individuals beliefs and the military rank of those beliefs. In the same way, the subjective norm is the sum of two elements -individuals beliefs that important to early(a) think they should or not should perform the behaviour question -The motivation to comply with other. In 1985, Adjzen added a new variable, the perceived behavioural control.This possibleness is widespread supported by researchers (Ajzen, 1991), but it is stated that additional predictors could be included in the model if there are significant to forecast consumer behaviour. identification number 2 The theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) 2. 1. 2. 2The relationship among TPB and food choice behaviour. In 1994, Thompson et. al (1998)analyzed the food behaviour with the TPB model in the context of growing consumption of olive oil in United Kingdom. The constructs of perceived behaviour control was removed because Spark et al. (1995, cited in Thompson et. al, 1994) stated that the olive oil consumption was not significantly impeded.In this look of olive oil, the model was significant and confirmed that TPB is well adapted to food consumption (Saegert and Young,1983 Towler and Shepherd, 1992 cited in Thompson et. al, 1994). Additionally, the study showed that attitudes is a force playful predictor and explicate the major part of the behaviour. It emphasizes that olive consumption is mainly due to the willingness to improve the taste of salad. Furthermore, the subjective norms play a minor role in the model, and reveals to be not significant. This fact is due the low involvement of consumers in the act of eat or make whoopieing.The consumption of organic food is more involved act as it reflects the life-style and the values of an individual. In the next study, we will see that subjective norm plays a key role when its integrate in the model as antecedents of attitudes. 2. 2The TPB in the context of organic food consumption 2. 2. 1The importance of subjective norms as antecedents of values. The research conducted by Tarkiainen and Sundqvist (2005) looks at the subjective norms and attitudes that influence the organic food consumption in Finland. As we emphasized previously, the perceived control behaviour as price and availability were found not significant.The most important finding of this study is the desegregation in the model of subjective norms as an antecedent of attitudes. As we give tongue to before, the subjective norms were often viewed as non si gnificant because of the low-involvement in the food and drink consumption. However, Chang (1998), Sherphed and OKeefe (1984), Shimp and Kavas (1984) and Vallerland et al. (1992) (cited in Tarkiainen and Sundqvist 2005) demonstrated that subjective norms were significant when the decision is cerebrate to an honorable context and when there are placed as antecedents of attitudes.The expiration of the study illustrated the importance of the behaviour in relation with others thinking. Furthermore, the specific attitude took into account in the study that is to say the health consciousness, is not sufficient in order to pardon attitudes. The authors notify that further studies should look at several motives/beliefs to pardon attitudes as environment concern. The next study we will discuss considers more variables in the model of TPB. 2. 2. 2The multivariate modelling attack of ethical consumer choice.Using the theory of planned behaviour, Shaw and Shiu (2003) explored the importa nt factors that occur in the context of organic food shopping. They proposed a study based on self-interest factors. In this way, they added two constructs in the primary theory the self-identity and ethical duty. Ethical obligation refers to ethical beliefs that would represent a persons beliefs of what is good or hurtful. Self-identity can be defined as the relevant part of an individuals self that relates to a particular behaviour (Shaw and Shiu, 2002).As Shaw and Shiu stated in 2000, these construct have an impact on the consumer behaviour in an ethical context and have been neglected before. go through 3 Modified theory of Planned behaviour (Shaw and Shiu, 2003) This model was authorise through a structural equation modelling in order to predict the behaviour of organic consumer. The study explains 52% percent of the actions of them. The theory of planned behaviour gives the opportunity to have more insight that a classical socio-demographic analysis which usually defines t he consumer profile (Shaw and Shiu, 2003).However some factors prevail unexplained (48%) and authors proposed to look at values that would influence the behaviour in order to understand which ones are underlying the self-identity and ethical obligation. In another(prenominal) hand, the study emphasized that information and emotions are very important in the ethical decision making (Shaw and Clark, 1999, cited in Shaw and Shiu, 2003). In the next step, we will focus on the values that influence the consumer decision process in the context of organic food shopping. 3The relationship between apprizes and organic consumption 3.1Presentation and meaning of values The concept of values is defined as what is behind attitudes and behaviour of an individual in the context of organisation, institutions and society (M. Rockeach, 1973). ain values are known to explain consumers behaviour in very broad situations (Rockeach, 1973). person-to-person values are defined by Schwartz and Bilsky (1 987, cited in Steenhaut, 2006) as concept or beliefs about desirable end states or behaviours that transcend specific situations, guide selection or evaluation of behaviour and events, and are ordered by relative importance.Milton Rockeach (1973) developed a wide range of values which are divided into two categories the implemental and the terminal one. The 36 kinds of different values are presented in the exhibit 2 Instrumental and terminal values defined by M. Rockeach (1973, laddie 3). Based on the work of M. Rockeach, Schwartz (1992, cited in Schwartz 2001) developed ten conclaves of values within a circular structure where the set of values is linked to each other. These ten groups of values are (Schwartz, 2001) -Self-direction -Stimulation -Achievement -Hedonism -Security -Benevolence -Universalism.-Conformity -Power -Tradition For the detailed meaning of each value, please refer to the exhibit 3 Definitions of type of values and items that represent and measure them (Schwa rtz, 2001). According to Schwartz (2001), values can be antagonist or congruent to each other. The circular pattern above shows the relationship between the ten groups. If two values are near, they tend to be congruent and if they are at the opposite, they are in conflict. Two axes resume the escape Self-enhancement versus self transcendence opposes power and achievement to universalism and benevolence values.Openness to transport to versus conservatism opposes the self-direction and stimulation values to security and conformity. (Schwartz, 2001) Figure 4 The relationship among 10 motivational types of values. 3. 2Exploring the organic food consumption towards the Schwartz quantify Survey In the aftermath of the result of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to organic food consumers, authors (Shaw et al. , 2005) investigated the pertinence of individualized values in the same context. They used the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) explained above. The result of the study can be summarizes in the following tableTable 3 value that are important in an ethical point of view (from Shaw et al. 2005) Groups of ValuesSpecific items associate to an ethical issues AchievementInfluential people are drive by ethical obligation and want to influence others. SecurityHealthy people want to eat and drink something that would value or at least not harm themselves BenevolenceHelpful want to have information for staff Honest relationship based on assurance UniversalismEquality and social justice surety and welfare of all people protect the environment preserving the reputation.In addition to the SVS, authors defined three values that were important for choosing organic food the capitalism as a negative one, consumer power and the animal welfare as positive one. In conclusion, values are not all meaningful and were inappropriate to study the ethical consumer. The most important finding is that the universalism values are the most relevant one in this specific context. A second study investigates the personal values combined with the Hunt-Vitell scheme as we will see now. 3. 3Relationship between personal values, ethical ideology and ethical beliefs.The Hunt-Vitell theory examines the judgment and the evaluation of an ethical problem of an individual. In this review of consumer ethics, Vitell (2003) emphasized that two major factors influence the evaluation of consumers the idealism and the relativism. After a presentation about the model that will be used, we will discuss the purpose of the research paper. 3. 3. 1Hunt-Vitell theory of ethics Hunt and Vitell (1986) developed a model thats perusal the decision making process of an individual when (s)he is facing an ethical issue.When a person is in front an issue, (s)he has alternatives that he can chose. These perceived alternatives are evaluated thanks to two ways of analysis the deontological and the teleological point of view. The deontological evaluation concentrates on the evaluation of the be haviour itself and compares the evaluation of alternatives in term of incorrectness or rightness. This is directly connect to personal norms and beliefs that a person develops. The teleological evaluation focuses on the consequences of the alternatives, and wants to state if its good or bad to take one decision.It contains four major constructs -the perceived consequences of each alternatives for discordant stakeholders, -The probability that each consequence will occur to each stakeholder, -The desirability or lack of desirability of each consequence, -The importance of each stakeholder group (Hunt and Vitell, 1986, p. 9). These predictors sum up together, build the ethical judgment of an individual which is off into intention to behave and into behaviour. Finally, we also have a predictor called Situational Constraints which is think to the macro-environment that could impact the behaviour (eg.opportunity).The concept established that four areas will force the perceived ethi cal issue, alternatives and consequences -The cultural environment -The personal characteristics -The industry environment -The organizational environment. As we can see Hunt and Vitell theory is a global concept that occurs in businesses related situation, however if we remove the constructs related to a professional situation, this model is valid to study the consumer behaviour (Scott J. Vitell, 2003). Figure 1 the Hunt and Vitell theory without professional situational predictors (Hunt and Vitell, 1986).3. 3. 2Findings about the relationship between personal values, ethical beliefs and ethical ideology The purpose of the research make by Steenhaut and Kenhove (2006) was to examine the influence and the impact of individual personal values priorities in the ethical judgment. To do so, they used the Hunt-Vitell theory combined with the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1994, cited in Steenhaut and Kenhove, 2006). To measure the ethical beliefs, they use the Consumer Ethics collect ion plate developed and validated by Vitell and Muncy (1992, cited in Vitell 2003).This subdue looked at the reactions of consumers in front of ethical questionable actions (e. g. the reaction facing a motionless benefit at the expense of others). The study found that idealism was determinant more a consumer is attached to tradition, security and conformity the more likely he is to act ethically. Furthermore, more a consumer is attached to universalism and benevolence (self-transcendent), the more is likely to act ethically. ? Two major types of values are important in an ethical context. The universalism and benevolence (self-transcendent) are the most important values in the context of organic food shopping.These findings cant explain a lot of the behaviour (no more than 10% in Shaw et al. 2006), so we propose that more specific values related to food choices and ethical behaviour have to be studied. ?These findings give the opportunity to marketer to distort their communicati on actions on values that care for organic consumers. However, personal values are only an indirect linked to the consumer behaviour, and it is noticed in the both studies (Shaw et al. 2006 and Steenhaut and Kenhove, 2006) illustrated that personal values are not enough to predict ethical decision making process especially in the context of organic shopping.Even if self-transcendent values need to be studied in the case of organic food consumption, its just a set of explanation. These values are to general and are shared by people in a culture (Honkanen et al. 2006) so it appears that different ways to investigate the relationship between values and organic food consumption should be discussed. In the next part, we will investigate countrywide surveys that have explored the organic consumers. They take into account more variables like socio-demographic factors, beliefs and motives regarding organic consumption.4Analyzing the organic consumers through their motivation and their socio -demographic factors 4. 1What are the main motivations towards organic consumption? 4. 1. 1The health motives Most of the researches do on organic consumers state that the most important factor that influences the decision to purchase is the health (Fagerli and Wandel 1999, Rozin et al. 1999, cited in Magnusson et al. 2003). Even if there are no clear evidence that organic food consumption is healthier than the conventional one, this factor is generally ranked at the top. 4. 1. 2The environmentally friendly consumers/ fearfulness for the environment is the other one most important motive to purchase organic products. In this case, people want to act in order to protect the environment, the nature and more generally the eco-system. These consumers also care about the pollution, the usage of non renewable resources and species preservations. (McEachern and McClean,2002). The animal welfare is also a motivation for environmentally friendly consumers. 4. 1. 3The food safety One of the reasons for seeking food safety (Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002) is related to recent food scandal like the BSE crisis in UK and all over Europe.People are looking for mitigate quality and safety in order to protect themselves and that include organic products. Furthermore, the genetically modified food appears to be risky for a range of consumers , they would have positive thinking about organics compared to negative thoughts about GM (Rimal et al. 2005). 4. 1. 4The taste of the product Consumers often see organic products as more tasty compared to the conventional one because they are made in little quantities and wider varieties (Davis et al. 1995, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002).Tastes rating is high in country like UK and Germany (Meier-Ploeger and Woodward, 1999 cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). It seems that it is one of the top five factors of motivation for buying. but it appears that there is no scientific evidence of the higher taste of organics and it seems that the beliefs of the consumers are divergent from the reality (Hutchins and Greenhalg, 1997, cited in Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002) 4. 1. 5The confidence on food industry The study of Squires et al.(2001) showed that less an individual is confident in the conventional food industry, the more likely he is to purchase organic food. That seems logical as if a consumer is scared about conventional food, we will seek for other alternatives including organics. As we stated that there are differences between consumer profiles and habits according to the country of origin and it would be interesting to emphasize these divergences. In the next part, consumers are studied according to their purchase behaviour (intensity) thanks to the combination of motivations with socio-demographics factors.In this way, we will discuss the behaviour on several countries and try to analyse if these factors are suuficient to well understand organic consumers. 4. 2The consumers profiles by coun tries 4. 2. 1. 1? in France According to the barometer made by CSA Agence Bio in 2006, 4 out 10 people consume organic products at least once a month and that 7% consume it every week. The motives of French consumers have evolved over time and are -The protection of the environment -The health concern -The food safety -The taste and the quality. Furthermore, the availability of the products is seen as a moderator for 19% of the population.The willingness to pay more is well accepted as consumers think that is normal to pay more for higher quality standard products like organics. The products that are the more consumed are fresh, diary, and meat items. In this study, we dont have any information about the socio-demographic profiles about consumers as well as their values. 4. 2. 1. 2? in Australia The research of Lea and Worsley (2005) scrutinize the relationship between personal values, beliefs and socio-demographics factors in order to understand the organic consumers in Australia.T hey use a 12 items scale about beliefs and organic food, a 14 items scale about the self-transcendence personal values adapted from Schwartz Value Survey and a 13 items scale (age, sex, income and education) to perform their questionnaire. The results are summarized in the following table ValuesBeliefs and MotivesModeratorsDemo. Profile The values are positively related to organic purchases. They explain only 8% of the variance in the study-Health -Taste -environmentThe expense and the availability are the major moderators as expected.50% mistrust the organic labelling systemMore women compare to men a likely to purchase. The other factors were not significant. The profile which is more likely to purchase is a distaff who strongly care about nature and equality. The study suggest that not only socio-demographic and personal values factors influence the decision to purchase and that future research should look the perceived consequences of the act of buying and other concrete attrib ute like taste or colour. 4. 2. 1. 3? in New-Zealand The purpose of the study developed by Squires et al.(2001) was to investigate the cross-influences of the health, environmentally concerns, and the confidence in conventional food in the consumption in New-Zealand and in Denmark. The findings about the New-Zealanders are shown in the following table Beliefs and MotivesGeneral ProfileDemo. Profile -Health -Environment -Less trust in conventional in food ind. ? + towards organics. Personal eco-identity profile worried person about the mankind and about environmental disaster would buy more. More female, older people and more country and suburbs consumers consume organic products.4. 2. 1. 4? in Denmark According to the same study (Squires et al. 2001), Danes profile of organic consumers are Beliefs and MotivesGeneral ProfileDemo. Profile -Environment -Health -Mistrust in conventional in food ind. ? + towards organics. Green Self-perception profile care about the environment and its protection at first. More female, older people and live in cities. The authors advise for further research to look at more motivation factors in order to give more insights about the organic consumers. 4. 2. 1. 5? in Sweden The research made in Sweden by Magnusson et al.(2003) deals only with the two main factors that influence the organic decision to purchase, the human health and the environment and their consequences on the consumer. They design a study based on four organic types of product with two different scales -Questions about the frequency, attitudes, availability and beliefs about organic products. -Questions about the 17 possible consequences of buying organic food in general. They find out that the consequences of the act of buying are strongly related to environment and health well-being.The Swedish are motivated by health concern in the intention and frequency to purchase and young female tend to be the most likely to consume organic product. They also state that the environmental concern is an altruistic motive and that the health concern is more an egoistic motive (I want the well-being for my relatives and me at first). Swedish who have a strong green behaviour regarding recycling for instance, have more self-centred motives for buying organic food. It can be explain by the fact that recycling or green behaviour require less involvement are easier to do everyday.?This study emphasizes the need to analyse the organic consumer in a wider way with the inclusion of his/her behaviour regarding other green or ethic activities. With the inclusion of these variables, research would have the capacitor to state if other green behaviours are related or have an impact on the consumption of organics. 4. 2. 1. 6? in Greece The Greek market is a novice one regarding the consumption of organic products, and Fotopoulos and Krystallis (2002) want give information about consumers in the country and investigate ways to dot different consumers according to the ir behavio.