Friday, March 29, 2019
Applications of Counselling Psychology
Applications of hash out PsychologyCase Study D Psychodynamic FormulationPete is a 34 year old male, self-referred to therapy due to his recently developed headache of dogs that is disrupting his start and social life story. He also feels distressed by his recent detachment from his partner Sarah, which he attributes to job promotions and extra work responsibilities. Pete appears to be go by large amounts of alcohol on a daily basis and has run short solitary in an blast to manage his tonuss of low mood, hopelessness and business concern. found on developmental theories (Freud 1905, Erikson 1950, Bowlby,1969), search suggests thats one-on-ones are deeply influenced by physical and emotional experiences, as well as the emotional aureole they are exposed to in archaeozoic life (Kegerreis, 2010). Consequently, the most expert orientation to help explain and overcome Petes obstacles would be from a psychodynamic approach. This is a suitable orientation for this client as it addresses the last(prenominal) influences on Petes current charges and anxieties.Further background information, reveals Pete is the youngest of two siblings and has never suffered from phobic episodes or holds history of all previous mental instability. Importantly, Pete rec totallys parental tautness and strife by means ofout his puerility up until his parents split upd when he was fourth-year 11 and also expresses a divide between himself and his father caused by family tension, which is still relevant today (See Kalmijn, 2013). Most significantly, Pete recalls a particular stock from his childhood in which he spent a uncomfortable pass at his fathers home and only gained comfort through sp dyinging time with his fathers Alsatian dog.Based on the underlying influence of past events throughout Petes childhood, the preferred psychotherapeutic orientation for this clients clinical formulation would be found on a psychodynamic theoretical perspective. This psychodynam ic formulation acknowledges that it is through predisposing factors that Pete may be experiencing an underlying unconscious fear of relationship breakdown. A fear that is precipitated by two conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings that stem from his childhood and are change magnitude levels of anxieties regarding his relationship breakdown with wife Sarah. It is reasonable to presume that the current untune between himself and his wife, thought to be caused by extra work responsibilities, has resurfaced these childhood memories consequently triggering his new found phobia of dogs. As this is a completely new phobia it can be suggested that it is actually a displaced fear establish on experiences within his past and further perpetuated by memories of his parents failed relationship.Freud (1915) believed that all human behaviour has a significant meaningful and motivated employment in which anxieties and fears are very often connected with a combine of hidden feelings fr om the past. Often these feelings from childhood become repressed and proceed to demonstrate themselves as other negative symptoms in adulthood. Seemingly obscure behaviours, much(prenominal) as Petes recently developed fear of dogs, can attempt to be explained by unconscious motivations from which hidden meanings can be see and it is reasonable to presume that the initial fear of which Pete has sort help for was triggered by feelings of anxiety and stress brought on by his increased employability responsibility and the relate this had on his current martial relationship. However, Petes fear of dogs is not the spark advance concern and there appears to be one central pervasive cope underlying the current problems in Petes life which can be traced back through his personal history. Reinforced through the use of Malans (1995) Triangle of persons as a means of relating transferralence matters between leaf node and therapist, it can be observed that Pete possesses a main underly ing fear of relationship breakdown which has manifested itself as a displaced fear of dogs, subsequently based on Petes childhood memories, lack of relationship with his father and feeling towards him as the main antagonist in his parents failed relationship.Supported by research (Cui Fincham, 2010), it appears that Pete is predisposed to possess such fears due to influential events in his childhood, mainly the breakdown of his parents relationship and the tensions and conflicts this created as a result, further reinforced by his mothers recalled negative view that marriages never work.. they just end in hurt. In an unconscious attempt to resolve these problems and tranquilize symptoms of anxiety Pete has begun utilising the consumption of alcohol in an attempt to remain in control over his life. However this behaviour is in fact maintaining and reinforcing Petes problemsand a basic principle of the Psychodynamic model proposes that internal unresolved conflicts derived from earl y childhood development tend to repeat themselves in adult relationships if not resolved. These maladaptive behaviours are further perpetuating his current problems and increasing Petes fear and belief that this relationship breakdown is out of his control and the past leave behind indefinitely repeat itself.As based on the rationale that an individuals behaviours and cognitions are influenced by unconscious thought processes and emotions from within the clients past , it is suggested that analytic thinking would be the most beneficial treatment. The classical technique of psychoanalysis is based on conflict theory (Erikson 1950) and places emphasis on both the past and present with the aim of making the unconscious conscious. It is also widely renowned for its ability to help clients develop insight into the cause of implanted problems that stem from childhood through the exploration and clarification of the clients expressed thoughts and feelings (Compton, 1990).In this autho rity Pete is encouraged to engage in free association and express any thoughts that arise during the session. This allows the therapist to try and reveal the unconscious thoughts and memories possessed by the Pete, in order to make sense of the origins of the problem Throughout the sessions Pete will also be encouraged to engage in transference and transfer feelings he has towards important people in his life, such as his parents onto the therapist as a means of understanding the influential relationships within his life (Freud, 1914). In order to represent the interactions between these elements diagrams shown in Figure 1 an 2 (See Appendices) will be utilised (Malan, 1979,1995). It is generally proposed that Pete would attend or so 4 sessions a week in order to provide a setting to explore these unconscious patterns, and try to make sense of them whole concentrated on the achievement of a cathartic experience through analysis.AppendicesFigure 1. Triangle of Persons (Malan, 1995) Figure2. Triangle of Conflict (Malan, 1979)ReferencesAuld, F., Hyman, M. (1991). Resolution of inner conflict An introduction to psychoanalytic therapy. Washington, DC American Psychological Association.Bowlby J. (1969).Attachment. Attachment and leaving Vol. 1. Loss. invigorated York Basic Books.Compton, A. (1990). Psychoanalytic process. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 59, 585-598.Cui, M., Fincham, F. D. (2010). The differential effects of parental divorce and marital conflict on young adult romantic relationships.Personal Relationships,17(3), 331-343.Erikson, E. H. (1950).Childhood and Society. New York Norton.Freud, S. (1914), Repeating, Remembering and Working Through, Standard Edition, 12147-56.Freud, S. (1905).Three essays on the theory of sexuality. Se, 7.Freud, S. (1984a).The unconscious. In A. Richards (Ed.),The Pelican Freud library Vol. 11. On metapsychology The theory of psychoanalysis (pp. 159222). Harmondsworth Penguin. (Original work published 1915)Kalmijn, M. (2013). long effects of divorce on parentchild relationships Within-family comparisons of fathers and mothers.European sociological review,29(5), 888-898.Kegerreis, S. (2010).Psychodynamic talk over with Children and Young People An Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan.Malan, D. H. (1979).Individual psychotherapy and the skill of psychodynamics. London Butterworths.Malan,D. H(1995).Individual psychotherapy and the science of psychodynamics(2nd ed). OxfordButterworth-Heinemann.