Tuesday, February 19, 2019

An explanation of the history of the corrections system and varying approaches to corrections by era Essay

An explanation of the history of the corrections outline and varying ap masteraches to corrections by eraIntroduction Incarceration is a type of cloggy evil that became prevalent in the USA prior to the Revolution, although corrective bondage efforts sucked in England as early as 1500s, a number of cargo atomic number 18a facilities and dungeons as forms of prison house house house houses were in existence ever since that time. Efforts d unmatched in twist prisons in was in 3 major ways (Ayers, 1984). The first first in the period of the Jackson Ian Era that became prevalent in reconstructive and imprisonwork forcet labor as the main penalization for many plagues in virtu exclusivelyy all places by Civil War time.Subsequently thither was incarceration following the Civil War gaining drive in the bountiful Period, getting or so in like mannerlslike unloosen, political campaign, and unstipulated penalizingin the conventional of corrective apply (Ekirch, 1987). Lastly, subsequently after the early 1970s, the USA has been involved in a historical exceptional development of its incarceration organizations at level of disk operating formation and federal. In the meantime in 1973, the intent persons rose in a five-fold, and in any given year 7, 000,000 individuals atomic number 18 at a lower place tally and supervision of correction.In these quantify of disentangleing and constructing prison great alterations in the prison responsibilities, missions and structure administrations of state and federal agencies for supervising and administering them, in addition to the semipolitical and legal status of captives themselves (Christianson, 1998). prison is among mavin of a number of sanctions operational to the acts to deal with those who commit criminal offences. Imprisonment today is the harshest sanction functional (Alexander, 2012).In the 1600s and 1700s Approval of criminal behavior tends to be proceedings of existence aime d at humiliating the person and avoiding enlightens from the maltreatdoing these atomic number 18 inclusive of the branding, asymmetrical stool, whipping, scorning, and the stocks (Christianson, 1998). At that time the sentence for close wrongdoings was death. prison inclined to creation a habitation where individuals were held up as they waited for their punishment and prior to their trial (Ekirch, 1987). It was hardly utilized in punishing in its way. E actuallyone inclusive of boys, girls, men and women were locked together in prisons (Christianson, 1998). This period prisons were poorly unploughed and frequently managed by cargon slight prison warders. People died from diseases like gal fever that is a form of typhus.In this Era, a prototype correction kinding was build the London Bride puff up. Correction houses were at first part of the Poor truthfulness machinery, anticipated to impart industry habits by prison labor (Alexander, 2012). galore(postnominal) indiv iduals locked in them were minor offenders, tramps and the un transcriptionatic indigenous unfortunate people. Towards the end of seventeenth century, they were captivated into the system of prisons by local Justices of the Peace control. interrogate outcome 2 Description of the participants of the corrections system and their sectionscorrectional incumbent (CO) He assists in controlling, directing and monitoring the movements and activities of inmates (Ayers, 1984). He makes sure prison rules be followed, ensuring the safety and protective covering department of inmates, staff, visitors and the confederation (Alexander, 2012). As a visitor you impart frequently come in contact with Correctional Officer.Correctional police sergeant Correctional sergeants supervise Correctional officers and perform keep work, which involves providing safety and security as well as controlling, directing and monitoring the activities and movement of big(a) inmates (Ekirch, 1 987). Correctional sergeants direct a variety of duties depending upon where they ar assigned (Alexander, 2012). distri scarceively facility has a public Access or visit Sergeant who prevalently can resolve give aways relating to the visiting process.Correctional Lieutenant A correctional lieutenant is responsible for security operations during his her shift and supervises Correctional Sergeants (Christianson, 1998). This position manages any response to emergency situations that may arise.Correctional skipper This is the senior custody staff member responsible for facility- broad(a) custody and security operations and supervision of Lieutenants (Ayers, 1984).Community Corrections Officer (CCO), Classification guidance (CC) Each inmate has an assigned CCO or CC, depending on the facility in which they reside or the county in which they ar supervised (Ekirch, 1987).. Counselors handle day-by-day issues or c oncerns of inmates in a housing unit. Counselors ar responsible for sorting and case anxiety (education and work schedules) and release preparation. CCOs are in the partnership offices, pre-release and work release facilities, providing a similar service to inmates who are on partnership supervision.Correctional Unit Supervisor (CUS) A CUS is responsible for the management of a housing unit, including the supervision of CCs or CCOs, and custody staff (Sergeants and Cos) (Alexander, 2012). gesture digit 3Impediments and issues faced by corrections admins when running a prison According to Alexander (2012), present prison populations being a mixture of short term and long term and flavorrs, definite and unfixed sentenced inmates, the throw up the healthy, the young, the old. Rehabilitation and a get out way of life are round of the reasoning behind such programs though the necessity of some of these programs is under scrutiny (Christianson, 1998). Politicians and tax sufferers glower upon such programs as conju gal visitation, some tonus that the programs are too risky and sometimes too expensive (Christianson, 1998). At the extreme this programs are looked upon as a prodigality and lessen the punishment effect of incarceration.Management control of facilities is an early(a) conundrum (Ayers, 1984). The thought of contracting communicable diseases and being ab utilise by savage inmates threatens staff and the general population. One solution is to remove predatory and other(a) dangerous offenders from the population (Ekirch, 1987). kind-hearted immunodeficiency virus-Positive inmates, successive killers, violent sex offenders being some. legion(predicate) turn out proposed isolation of problem offenders.It is a scary concept that an artless person convicted of a crime to have contracted Aids man being incarcerated (Alexander, 2012). Even scarier to perceive is if the inmate contracted the disease as a result of rape (Blackmon, 2008). The rates of HIV and AIDS in prisons are esti mated at five times higher(prenominal) than within the general population. This occurrence has been attributed to a higher number of inmates sharing of needles and also of inmates that move into in unprotected sex in prisons (Alexander, 2012). As of 1996, at that place were 25,000 inmates with HIV and by then only 16 states tested all inmates get into prison. The dilemma facing corrections is whether they should be segregated from the population to tick off the spread of disease.The quality of life of seropositive inmates is greatly affected by administrative decisions on screening and detection, housing programs, access to quality medical treatment, moral health support, and funding. Management of HIV is very complicated (Ekirch, 1987). One essential take multiple medications on varying schedules, custody and health staff must develop a supportive medication administrative system (Ayers, 1984). HIV-Positive need decorous treatment and may require a higher level care that m ay non be easy at all areas of institutions. Patients with HIV infection may require isolation if they have pulmonary tuberculosis. Obviously thither is need for segregation.There is the ethical issue of whether it is right to segregate all HIV-positive inmates from the general population. Activities are important to the all(prenominal)day lives of all inmates (Ayers, 1984). Aids patients are no contrary. Decisions on housing HIV-Positive inmates should be based on what is appropriate for their age, gender, custody class, non just for the particular that they are seropositive. Not all HIV-Positive inmates are a danger to other inmates (Blackmon, 2008). The type of offence, length of time sentenced general behavior, and expert report poised at the classification stage leave behind be a kick d stimulatestmelodic phrases indication of whether they will pose a danger to the prison system. as well communicable diseases, criminal recidivists pose an enormous social problem to r escript Hirsch, rapture J. (1992).A lethal predator such as serial killers and violent sex offenders pose a particular problem not just in the cede world but inside prison cells. nigh profilers say serial killers do not learn from mistakes in their previous killings. They feel no guilt, no remorse and have an berth of total disdain towards their victims. Theres a self-importance that runs in all of them and must demonstrate mental abnormality, usually a faction of internal sadism and psychopathy (Blackmon, 2008).Conjugal visitation is not available to just about married and unmarried inmates in U.S. prisons it is allowed only in six states, California, Connecticut, Mississippi, saucy Mexico, naked as a jaybird York and Washington (Christianson, 1998). Viewed as an un necessity prisoner privilege in some jurisdictions, many members of the general public such as rectitudemakers frown upon such issue. The thought of inmates enjoying themselves while serving a punitive prison sentence is largely unacceptable to innocent, the Statesn citizens who fall prey to criminal acts.Many view visitations as improving prison environment by giving inmates something to look forward to and an incentive to participate in rehabilitative programs, and a mechanism with which to cope with prison life (Christianson, 1998).Reflecting on the prison population and some of the issues for the future of corrections, employees will have to become better versed in supervising and caring for the very dangerous, the average, the very young, the very old, the mentally ill and the infirm (Blackmon, 2008).Question Number 4 A complete description of the rights of prisoners and the Administration of required go by prison officialsIn accordance to Alexander, Michelle (2012), these rights were embraced by the First United Nations Congress on the Prevention of crimes and the treatment of offenders held at Geneva in 1995, Part I of the rules covers the general management of institutions and is applicable to all categories of prisoners, criminal or civil, untried or convicted,Basic principleThere shall be no variation on grounds of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status (Christianson, 1998).On the other hand, it is necessary to respect the religious beliefs and moral precepts of the group to which a prisoner belongs.RegisterAccording to Ayers, Edward L. (1984), In every place where persons are imprisoned there shall be unbroken a bound registration leger with numbered pages in which shall be entered in respect of each prisoner accreditedInformation concerning his identityThe reasons for his commitment and the authority thereforThe day and minute of arc of his admission and releaseNo person shall be received in an institution without a valid commitment order of which the details shall have been previously entered in the register is in accordance to Bookspan, Shelley (1991). .Sep aration of categories8. The different categories of prisoners shall be kept in break dance institutions or parts of institutions winning account of their sex, age, criminal record, the legal reason for their detention and the necessities of their treatment in accordance to Ekirch, A. Roger (1987).. Thus,Men and women shall so far as possible be detained in separate institutions in an institution which receives both men and women the total of the premises allocated to women shall be entirely separateUntried prisoners shall be kept separate from convicted prisonersPersons imprisoned for debt and other civil prisoners shall be kept separate from persons imprisoned by reason of a criminal offence Hirsch, go game J. (1992)Young prisoners shall be kept separate from adults.Accommodation 9. (1) where sleeping fitting is in individual cells or meanss, each prisoner shall occupy by night a cell or room by himself (Christianson, 1998). If for some reasons, such as temporary o vercrowding, it becomes necessary for the central prison governance to make an exception to this rule, it is not desirable to have two prisoners in a cell or room (Blackmon, 2008).(2) Where dormitories are utilize, they shall be engaged by prisoners carefully selected as being suitable to associate with one another(prenominal) in those conditions (Christianson, 1998). There shall be regular supervision by night, in keeping with the nature of the institution.10. alone accommodation provided for the use of prisoners and in particular all sleeping accommodation shall meet all requirements of health, buy offable regard being paid to climatic conditions and particularly to cubic content of air, minimum floor space, lighting, heating and ventilation (Ayers, 1984).11. both place the prisoners are needed to work or live.(a) The windows shall be large enough to modify the prisoners to read or work by natural light, and shall be so constructed that they can allow the entrance of fres h air whether or not there is artificial ventilation (Alexander, 2012).(b) Artificial light shall be delivered fittedly for the prisoners to read or work without daub to vision.12. The sanitary installations shall be adequate to enable every prisoner to comply with the needs of nature when necessary and in a clean and decent manner (Christianson, 1998).13. Adequate dishwashing and order of battleer installations shall be provided so that every prisoner may be enabled and required to have a bath or shower, at a temperature suitable to the climate, as frequently as necessary for general hygiene according to season and geographical region, but at least once a week in a temperate climate (Ekirch, 1987).14. All parts of an institution regularly used by prisoners shall be mightily maintained and kept scrupulously clean at all times (Alexander, 2012).Personal hygiene 15. Prisoners shall be required to keep their persons clean, and to this end they shall be provided with water an d with such toilet articles as are necessary for health and cleanliness (Ayers, 1984).16. In order that prisoners may maintain a good visual aspect compatible with their self-respect, facilities shall be provided for the proper care of the hair and beard, and men shall be enabled to shave regularly (Alexander, 2012).Clothing and bedding 17. (1) Every prisoner who is not allowed to clothing his own clothing shall be provided with an outfit of clothing suitable for the climate and adequate to keep him in good health (Ayers, 1984). much(prenominal) clothing shall in no manner be degrading or humiliating.(2) All clothing shall be clean and kept in proper condition (Christianson, 1998).. Underclothing shall be changed and washed as often as necessary for the maintenance of hygiene.(3) In exceptional circumstances, whenever a prisoner is removed outside the institution for an authorized plan, he shall be allowed to wear his own clothing or other inconspicuous clothing (Blackmon, 2008).18. If prisoners are allowed to wear their own clothing, arrangements shall be make on their admission to the institution to check over that it shall be clean and fit for use (Ayers, 1984).19. Every prisoner shall, in accordance with local or national standards, be provided with a separate bed, and with separate and sufficient bedding which shall be clean when issued, kept in good order and changed often enough to ensure its cleanliness (Christianson, 1998).Food 20. (1) Every prisoner shall be provided by the administration at the usual hours with sustenance of nutritional value adequate for health and strength, of wholesome quality and well prepared and caused (Ekirch, 1987).(2) Drinking water shall be available to every prisoner whenever he needs it.Exercise and sport 21. (1) Every prisoner who is not employed in outdoor work shall have at least one hour of suitable exercise in the open air periodical if the weather permits (Ekirch, 1987).(2) Young prisoners, a nd others of suitable age and physique, shall receive sensual and recreational training during the period of exercise (Alexander, 2012). To this end space, installations and equipment should be provided. aesculapian services 22. (1) At every institution there shall be available the services of at least one qualified medical officer who should have some knowledge of psychiatry(Alexander, 2012). The medical services should be organize in close relationship to the general health administration of the community or nation. They shall include a psychiatric service for the diagnosis and, in proper cases, the treatment of states of mental abnormality.(2) Sick prisoners who require specialist treatment shall be transferred to specialized institutions or to civil hospitals (Ayers, 1984). Where hospital facilities are provided in an institution, their equipment, furnishings and pharmaceutical supplies shall be proper for the medical care and treatment of sick prisoners, and there shall be a staff of suitable trained officers.(3) The services of a qualified dental officer shall be available to every prisoner.23. (1) In womens institutions there shall be special accommodation for all necessary pre-natal and post-natal care and treatment. Arrangements shall be made wherever practicable for children to be born in a hospital outside the institution (Ekirch, 1987). If a child is born in prison, this fact shall not be mentioned in the birth certificate.Due to limitation of pages I shall summarize the rest as medical care shall be adequately provided to prisoners, discipline and order shall be maintained with firmness so as to have safe custody and a well and orderly life (Alexander, 2012)No prisoner shall be punished unless he has been informed of the offence alleged against him and given a proper opportunity of presenting his defense (Christianson, 1998). The medical officer shall visit daily and advice director if he considers the termination or alteration of the punis hment necessary.Question Number 5 A detailed description of alternative forms of corrections, including methods of rehabilitation and reintroduction to society.Prison abolition movement attempts to eliminate prisons and the prison system (Christianson, 1998). Prison abolitionists see the prisons as an in efficacious way to decrease crime and reform criminals, and that the modern criminal umpire system to be racist, sexist, classist (Ayers, 1984). One of the arguments made for prison abolition is that the majority of people accused of crime cannot undergo to pay a lawyer.Ways of eliminating incarceration could includeDe criminalisationAbolishing the system of bailEstablishing community based dispute and mediation centersRestitution ie creating community mechanisms for assuring payment or services by wrong doers to the wrongedFinesSuspended sentencesCommunity probation programsAlternative sentencingDecriminalization Process of decriminalization mover to wipe certain laws off the books. abhorrences considered for decriminalization are those that are victimless (Christianson, 1998). This is specify as offences that do not result in someone feeling that s/he has been injured in a way of do him/her to bring the offence to the attention of the authorities (Ekirch, 1987). The essential factor is that there is no victim to bring complaint, three statutes emerge within this definition moral statutes, illness statutes, nuisance statutes.Victimless crimes maybe irritating, annoying, or troublesome in general, but they are not really injurious to anyone in particular, they are crimes because the law says they are crimes (Christianson, 1998). Among those usually sighted are non-commercial gambling, prostitution, deviant sexual acts in private between consenting adult, public intoxication, possession, sale and dispersal of mislabeled drugs, blue laws against doing business on Sundays, loitering, disorderly conduct and vagrancy, truancy, incorrigible, hard headed or ungovernable behaviorAbolitionists advocate drastically limiting the role of criminal law (Ayers, 1984). It is realized that criminal sanctions are not an useful way of dealing with social problem. There is unjust and arbitrary law enforcement. Powerless persons are imprisoned while powerful persons go free (Ayers, 1984). Blacks and poor people bear the brunt of unequal law enforcement. Morality cannot be coerced by means of law. A democratic society should tolerate a wide range of individual differences (Alexander, 2012). A persons right to do what s/he wishes should be respected as long as s/he does not infringe upon the right of others.Over criminalization encourages the wide use of discretionary power in law enforcement, because there is no complainant, police resort to questionable means of enforcement, investigative techniques used to gather evidence are often immoral and sometimes black (Ekirch, 1987). These include entrapment, use of informers, wiretapping, and infringement of constitutional rights such as illegal search and seizure, invasion of right of privacy and self-incrimination (Ayers, 1984). Enforcement of victimless crimes also encourages corruption.Graft and pay-offs are frequently made by neighborhood numbers rackets and places of prostitution (Blackmon, 2008). plague syndicates manage to soak up much money flowing through illicit industries such as gambling and drugs. Prostitutes are run offed mostly the ones who are black, while most of their victims are white aged between 30 and 60 years thus there is selective enforcement Abolition of bail All persons are innocent of crime until proven guilty. No one may be deprived of liberty without the due process of law (Christianson, 1998). The mechanism developed by British society for this purpose was bail.De Tocqueville all the way saw that the bail system is inherently discriminatory against the poor (Ekirch, 1987). By placing a price tag on the right to freedom forwar ds trial beyond the reach of indigent, it makes a mockery of the presumption of honor and provides the underpinning for the use of the criminal (in) justice systems by the powerful to control the powerless. chemical bond has been shown to be unnecessary to accomplish its stated objective of return to tap (Ayers, 1984). The be are paid in three coins in human beings suffering by the poor who are its hostages in money by the taxpaying inwardness class and in the erosion of civil liberties arising from the systems hidden abuses.In accordance to Hirsch, Adam J. (1992), the beneficiaries are overlord criminals, for whom ransom is a business expense the wealthy, who are protected by a custody system paid for mainly by the taxes of the middle class as an operator of social control against the poor and unorthodox and bonds people, who make their living from the bail system and are pledged to serve that system.Despite proof that the system of bail is unnecessary to assure court appe arances, the holding of hostages continues (Blackmon, 2008). The cost of their incarceration both in economic and human terms is staggering (Ekirch, 1987). Half or more of accused persons are detained in jail pending trial. On a single day, if the system of bail were abolished, upwards of 50,000 pretrial conference detainees could be released from jail and thousands in the arrest and arraignment stage would avoid the cage entirely.Bail has been used as an instrument of preventive detention and as a constitutionally guaranteed avenue of pretrial release (Alexander, 2012). There are thus prejudices too much room in the bail system and no defense against, the administration of justice by personal from which no one, including the judge is free. The abolition of bail would emit this hidden agenda and force the development of open and fair rules and discriminative accountability.Community dispute and mediation centers Mediation centers present a unequaled opportunity for grass r oots involvement in the process of justice and excarceration (Blackmon, 2008). Abolitionists recommend the establishment of such centers in every neighborhood By the use of the moot model where neighbors and kin of the disputants listen to the airing of disputes (Christianson, 1998). It is not coercive and allows the disputants to discuss their problems In an atmosphere free from the questions of past fact and guilt.Restitution Payment can be made by the offender for a particular amount of sawhorses for a particular kind of injury and y amount of dollars for another, as in workmens compensation or in tort (Gottschalk, 2006). The lawbreaker then is kept in the community and corrects his/her wrong, corrects discomfort and inconvenience of victim, saves community and individual economic and psychic costs of trial etc., reduces role of criminal law (Ekirch, 1987).Fines The poor unable to pay fines systematically filled the jails until a supreme court decision in 1971 ruled th at an indigent could not be imprisoned upon non- payment of a fine but must be given an opportunity to pay in installments, the wrong doer is then able to stay in the community, saving the state probation expenses, welfare expenses, and the human costs of caging.Suspended sentences apply as a mechanism of establishing responsibility for wrong doing without imposing punishment or any supervisory conditions on the wrongdoer , the defendant loses few civil right, while probation is likened to suspended sentence, they differ in that probation carries with it the threat of imprisonment, most variations of the suspended sentence require that no law be go against (Blackmon, 2008). It is the least punitive of a range of alternative sentences.Probation It is the most ordinarily accepted and widely used mode of excarceration (Blackmon, 2008). Though mostly used on non- violent crimes, it has been extended to include other homicides and other sobering wrongs which usually result in imprisonment. In unsupervised probation, persons would be under no compulsion to report or participate in programs, but could request for help from probation officers in accordance to Hirsch, Adam J. (1992).Question Number 6. A comprehensive list of alternative strategies to incarceration with an assessment, both pro and con, showing their price as related to traditional, incarceration strategies.The predominate purpose this question was asked was to illustrate that there are programs accessible and effective substitutes available instead of incarceration. Some of the famous ones used at present will be described briefly.Development in Early childhood The headspring Start program returns about seven dollars in benefits for every dollar invested (Ayers, 1984). Children born in poverty who attended a head start preschool program have half as many criminal arrests, less likelihood of going to jail, higher earnings and property wealth, and a great commitment to family than s imilarly situated people who did not attend the program (Alexander, 2012).Reformation Where teenagers will get ways to entertain themselves, by breakout windows and drinking liquor if not by playing ball or some other sport (Alexander, 2012). Parks and recreational opportunities like the Midnight hoops and late night recreation center openings are proven effective at reducing crime (Alexander, 2012). When a pilot program in Phoenix, Arizona, kept recreation centers open until 2 a.m., juvenile crimes decreased by as much as 50%. The cost of the program was kept low at only sixty cents per person (Ayers, 1984).Gang sensation Kids often turn to gangs because of the absence of pro-social recreational alternatives. Kids also turn to gangs for a sense of being, something they may not be receiving at home (Ekirch, 1987). Parents sometimes do not take enough time with their children to show them their worth at home, giving them a reason to stay instead of roaming the streets. Most often t imes, gangs are more destructive to property than to human life (Alexander, 2012). When gangs do turn violent, it is most often times directed at rival gangs or families of the rival gang members. Gangs are a problem, not just in big metropolitan cities, but also in small suburban towns and rural America. Gang problems must be communicate at the first signs of potential activity.Society needs to teach children that gangs are not proper places to gain education and experiences, which should be accomplished more effectively in school and at home (Ayers, 1984). nurture Education is the route to better jobs and a potential way out of crime (Ekirch, 1987). In 1991, for the first time in U.S. history, cities spent more on law enforcement than on education (Alexander, 2012).Jurisdictions around the country are not bad(p) education budgets because they lack sufficient bullion, while setting aside funds for law enforcement (Ayers, 1984). 16 Schools that engage parents or caretakers in tr oubled communities show excellent results. Now, I dont necessarily agree with snip back on law enforcement spending (Ekirch, 1987).ReferencesAlexander, Michelle (2012). The youthful Jim Crow mountain Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, New York.Ayers, Edward L. (1984), Vengeance and Justice Crime and Punishment in the 19th-Century American South, New York.Blackmon, Douglas A. (2008), Slavery by another Name The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II, New York.Bookspan, Shelley (1991). A Germ of Goodness The California State Prison System, 18511944, Lincoln.Christianson, Scott (1998). With closeness for Some 500 Years of Imprisonment in America, Boston.Ekirch, A. Roger (1987). Bound for America The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 17181775, Oxford.Gottschalk, Marie (2006). The Prison and the Gallows The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America, Cambridge.Hindus, Michael Stephen (1980). Prison and Plantation Crime, Justice, and Authority in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 17671878, chapel service Hill.Hirsch, Adam J. (1992). The Rise of the Penitentiary Prisons and Punishment in Early America, New havenGottschalk, Marie (2006). The Prison and the Gallows The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America, Cambridge.Hindus, Michael Stephen (1980). Prison and Plantation Crime, Justice, and Authority in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 17671878, Chapel Hill.Hirsch, Adam J. (1992). The Rise of the Penitentiary Prisons and Punishment in Early America, New HavenSource document

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